|Named By:||Ernst Stromer in 1915|
|Time Period:||Early-Late Cretaceous, 112-93.5 Ma|
|Location:||North Africa, particularly Egypt - Bahariya Formation, and Morocco - Kem Kem Beds|
|Size:||Estimated between 12.6 to 18 meters long|
|Fossil(s):||To date at least six partial specimens of the skull, mandible, neural spines and other fragmentary post cranial remains. Teeth however are considerably more common|
|Classification:||| Chordata | Reptilia | Dinosauria | Saurischia | Theropoda | Megalosauroidea | Spinosauridae | Spinosaurinae ||
Spinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what now is North Africa, during the upper Albian to upper Turonian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 93.5 million years ago. This genus was known first from Egyptian remains discovered in 1912 and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. The original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the fossils reported in the scientific literature. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species, S. maroccanus, has been recovered from Morocco.
Spinosaurus was among the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, nearly as large or even larger than Tyrannosaurus, Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus. Estimates published in 2005, 2007, and 2008 suggested that it was between 12.6-18 metres (41-59 ft) in length and 7 to 20.9 tonnes (7.7 to 23.0 short tons) in weight. A new estimate published in 2014 and based on a more complete specimen, supported the earlier research, finding that Spinosaurus could reach lengths of over 15 m (49 ft). The skull of Spinosaurus was long and narrow, similar to that of a modern crocodilian. Spinosaurus is known to have eaten fish, and most scientists believe that it hunted both terrestrial and aquatic prey; evidence suggests that it lived both on land and in water as a modern crocodilian does. The distinctive spines of Spinosaurus, which were long extensions of the vertebrae, grew to at least 1.65 meters (5.4 ft) long and were likely to have had skin connecting them, forming a sail-like structure, although some authors have suggested that the spines were covered in fat and formed a hump. Multiple functions have been put forward for this structure, including thermoregulation and display.